It would be too clean, too greedy, too expensive ... The electric car does have a future? The five key points of debate. And if the electric car pollution as much as the petrol car? A priori, a car with no muffler and emits no gas is necessarily environmentally friendly! Not so simple. "It does have an exhaust pipe, said Celine Mesquida, head of transport France Nature Environnement. The power plant. "Indeed, as we must produce the current, the electric car pollutes like a powerhouse. The current must then be transported and stored in a battery, causing the loss, and thus further pollution. Thus, according to ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management), the electric car requires 62% more energy than a car for the same thermal performance. Result, says Action for the environment, "said the electric vehicle" zero emissions "is a figment of the imagination. We can lend advantages such as reducing the noise or harmful emissions in urban areas but suggest that these vehicles are climate-neutral and would be the ultimate technological solution is the intellectual dishonesty ". Should we bury the electric car in the cemetery of seemingly good ideas? No. For the question of ecological balance is more complex than it seems. It is light-account several parameters: the source of electricity, how to recharge the vehicle, type of battery used ... Here are five key points.
Electric or petrol is the same CO2 emission
FALSE well-to-wheel, as experts say, what is the carbon footprint of the electric car?
This is the origin of the power that determines the volume of C02 emissions. If it comes from a hydroelectric dam or wind, nothing to say. But if it comes from coal, is another matter! "In China, the electric car is a car with coal, summarizes Coroller Patrick, head of transport and mobility ADEME. It pollutes more than diesel, "In Europe and the United States, the situation is different: the coal plants are part of the energy mix but they are not the majority, so the C02 balance is undoubtedly positive. WWF recognizes that such "in Europe and the United States electric vehicles emit significantly less CO2 than conventional vehicles. Same story at Greenpeace International: "To reduce CO2 emissions in the transportation, electric vehicles are the best." These words differ markedly from those of the French organizations named above. The reason? In France, electricity does not emit C02, but is predominantly nuclear (see chart cons). Hence the reluctance of environmental organizations to support the electric vehicle. The balance is however clear: "For us, an electric vehicle emits ten times less CO2 than a gasoline car," says Patrick Coroller.
The batteries can be recharged anytime
FALSE "If everyone recharge to 19 hours once returned home to I'heure extreme peak power consumption is a nightmare scenario for CO2," insists Yannick Vicaire, to act environment. The explanation of Patrick Coroller of ADEME: "Zion burden hours depicted, electricity suppliers must rely on coal-fired or gas." The solution is to have a "pricing system that encourages load to peak during the night. " But who will charge between midnight and 7 o'clock in the morning? "B is enough to have a computerized management burden, says Patrick Coroller. You go home, you plug your car and the computer feeds you when we pass the peak. "Assuming that the vehicles would routinely recharged at peak hours is the best argument against the electric car! His supporters themselves, advance figures studied French, Swedish and Swiss where electricity is décarbonée (hydro, nuclear).
The batteries are polluting
TRUE manufacture of batteries generates significant pollution. Especially since they have a lifetime quite short and it must change several times during the life of a car. "The CO2 emissions associated with the manufacture of a vehicle thermal represent roughly 15% of emissions from the use of the vehicle throughout its useful life, ie C0 $ which leaves the pot of exhaust, "said Philippe Pinchon, Director-energy engines of the French Institute of Petroleum.
This pollution double in the case of electric vehicles, if we take into account the change batteries regularly. No need to add the losses from the battery itself. Who has not been annoyed to see that his mobile phone was left on for one week at time of purchase, does more than a few hours a year later! "Yes, admits Jerome Perrin, director of advanced projects and C02 environment at Renault. But this is not the same. There is no purpose "memory" we meet with the mobile phone. We know fire 80% of the capacity of a car battery and it continues to grow. "
There is not enough power for 100% Electric Park
FALSE Already, it is illusory to believe that the French fleet will be converted to all-electric with a magic wand! At best, according to a study by ADEME, France can expect 1 million electric vehicles by 2020, about 3% of the fleet. As for the electrical capacity, it would be quite sufficient: one that will be available on that date will feed 4 million vehicles are recharged between midnight and 7 am, the study said. Moreover, if Europe keeps its goals of reduced consumption and use of renewable electricity, it should theoretically have sufficient power and less carbon than today.
The electric car is too expensive
TRUE Needless to veil the face: it costs almost twice the price of a car heat. Main reason: the drums strike on budget! "It costs 12 000 euros, said Max Blanchet, a partner at Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, a specialist in automotive industry. Hopefully the price will fall by half by 2020. But the driver caught up on maintenance and consumption. If we calculate the total price of an electric vehicle over its lifetime, it is up to 5% over a conventional vehicle. "Specifically, for 100 miles in urban use, a small car costs about 10 30 euro fuel as calculated by Max Blanchet, against € 2.03 in electricity. The gain is very clear that if the user rolls sufficiently to offset the price of the battery. But do not expect miracles from a car whose autonomy is limited to 100 kilometers per day!
And yet today there is no TIPP (domestic tax on petroleum products) on the electrical. If the State applied, the cost advantage of killowatt hour drop accordingly. Result, according to Max Blanchet: the electric car is good ecologically, but it is a niche representing 40,000 vehicles per year maximum.